C7 Industrial Engines Systems Operation – Basic Engine

Cylinder Block And Head

The cylinder block has seven main bearings. The main bearing caps are fastened to the cylinder block with two bolts for each cap.

Removal of the oil pan allows access to the crankshaft, the main bearing caps, the piston cooling jets, and the oil pump.

The camshaft is accessible through the covers on the left side of the cylinder block. These side covers support the pushrod lifters. The camshaft is supported by bearings that are pressed into the cylinder block. There are seven camshaft bearings.

The cylinder head is separated from the cylinder block by a nonasbestos fiber gasket with a steel backing. Coolant flows out of the cylinder block through gasket openings and into the cylinder head. This gasket also seals the oil supply and drain passages between the cylinder block and the cylinder head.

The air inlet ports are on the left side of the cylinder head, while the exhaust ports are located on the right side of the cylinder head. There are two inlet valves and one exhaust valve for each cylinder. Replaceable valve guides are pressed into the cylinder head. The electronically controlled fuel injector is located between the three valves. Fuel is injected directly into the cylinders at very high pressure. A pushrod valve system controls the valves.

Piston, Rings And Connecting Rods

One-piece aluminum pistons are used in most applications. Engines with higher cylinder pressures require one-piece steel pistons. Refer to the Parts Manual in order to obtain information about the type of pistons that are used in a specific engine.

Aluminum and Steel One-Piece Pistons

The aluminum and steel pistons have an iron band for the compression ring. This helps to reduce wear on the compression ring groove. The pistons have three rings:


  • Compression ring
  • Intermediate ring
  • Oil ring

All of the rings are located above the piston pin bore. The compression ring is a Keystone ring. Keystone rings have a tapered shape. The action of the ring in the piston groove that is tapered helps prevent seizure of the rings. Seizure of the rings is caused by deposits of carbon. The intermediate ring is rectangular with a sharp lower edge. The oil ring is a standard type of ring or a conventional type of ring. Oil returns to the crankcase through slots in the bottom of the groove.

Oil from the piston cooling jets sprays the underside of the pistons. The spray lubricates the pistons and the spray cools the pistons. The spray also improves the piston’s life and the spray also improves the ring’s life. The aluminum pistons use a single jet. The steel pistons use two jets. Refer to the Specifications, “Piston Cooling Jet” for more information.

The connecting rod has a taper on the pin bore end. This taper gives the connecting rod and the piston more strength. The additional strength is concentrated in the areas with the most load. Two bolts hold the connecting rod cap to the connecting rod. This design keeps the connecting rod width to a minimum, so that the connecting rod can be removed through the cylinder. You must keep the rod and the original cap together.


The crankshaft changes the combustion forces in the cylinder into usable rotating torque which powers the vehicle. A vibration damper is used at the front of the crankshaft to reduce torsional vibrations (twist on the crankshaft) that can cause damage to the engine.

The crankshaft drives a group of gears on the front of the engine. The gear group drives the following devices:


  • Oil pump
  • Camshaft
  • Unit injector hydraulic pump
  • Gear-driven air compressor
  • Power steering pump

In addition, belt pulleys on the front of the crankshaft drive the following components:


  • Radiator fan
  • Water pump
  • Alternator
  • Refrigerant compressor

Hydrodynamic seals are used at both ends of the crankshaft to control oil leakage. The hydrodynamic grooves in the seal lip move lubrication oil back into the crankcase as the crankshaft turns. The front seal is located in the front housing. The rear seal is installed in the flywheel housing.

Illustration 1 g01449227
Schematic of oil passages In crankshaft

(1) Oil gallery

(2) Main bearings

(3) Connecting rod bearings

Pressurized oil is supplied to all main bearings from the oil gallery (1) through drilled holes in the webs of the cylinder block. The oil then flows through drilled holes in the crankshaft in order to provide oil to the connecting rod bearings (3) . The crankshaft is held in place by seven main bearings (2) . A thrust bearing next to the rear main bearing controls the end play of the crankshaft.

Vibration Damper

The force from combustion in the cylinders will cause the crankshaft to twist. This is called torsional vibration. If the vibration is too great, the crankshaft will be damaged. The vibration damper limits the torsional vibrations to an acceptable amount in order to prevent damage to the crankshaft.

Rubber Vibration Damper (If Equipped)

Illustration 2 g01449235
Rubber vibration damper

(4) Crankshaft

(5) Ring

(6) Rubber ring

(7) Hub

(8) Alignment marks

The rubber vibration damper is installed on the front of crankshaft (4) . The hub (7) and ring (5) are isolated by a rubber ring (6) . The rubber vibration damper has alignment marks (8) on the hub and the ring. These marks give an indication of the condition of the rubber vibration damper.

Viscous Vibration Damper (If Equipped)

Illustration 3 g01449268
Cross section of viscous vibration damper

(4) Crankshaft

(9) Weight

(10) Case

The viscous vibration damper is installed on the front of crankshaft (4) . The viscous vibration damper has a weight (9) in a case (10) . The space between the weight and the case is filled with a viscous fluid. The weight moves in the case in order to limit the torsional vibration.


The camshaft is located in the upper left side of the cylinder block. The camshaft is driven by gears at the front of the engine. Seven bearings support the camshaft. A thrust plate is mounted between the camshaft drive gear and a shoulder of the camshaft in order to control the end play of the camshaft.

The camshaft is driven by an idler gear which is driven by the crankshaft gear. The camshaft rotates in the same direction as the crankshaft. The crankshaft rotates in the counterclockwise direction when the engine is viewed from the flywheel end of the engine. There are timing marks on the crankshaft gear, the idler gear, and the camshaft gear in order to ensure the correct camshaft timing to the crankshaft for proper valve operation.

As the camshaft turns, each lobe moves a lifter assembly. There are two lifter assemblies for each cylinder. Each lifter assembly moves a pushrod. Each pushrod moves a valve (exhaust) or a set of valves (inlet). The camshaft must be in time with the crankshaft. The relation of the camshaft lobes to the crankshaft position causes the valves in each cylinder to operate at the correct time.

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