C7 Industrial Engines Systems Operation – Cooling System

This engine has a pressurized cooling system that is equipped with a shunt line.

A pressurized cooling system offers two advantages:

The cooling system can operate safely at a temperature that is higher than the normal boiling point of water.
The cooling system prevents cavitation in the water pump.
Cavitation is the sudden formation of low pressure bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces. The formation of air or steam pockets is more difficult within a pressurized cooling system.

The shunt line prevents cavitation by the water pump. The shunt line provides a constant head pressure at the water pump inlet.

Note: The coolant mixture must be a minimum of 30 percent ethylene glycol base antifreeze for efficient water pump performance for air to air after cooled engines. The mixture keeps the cavitation temperature range of the coolant high enough for efficient performance.

Illustration 1 g01448775
Cooling system schematic

(1) Cylinder head

(2) Water temperature regulator housing

(3) Expansion tank

(4) Shunt line (expansion tank to water pump)

(5) Bypass hose

(6) Radiator

(7) Cylinder block

(8) Oil cooler

(9) Water pump

Water pump (9) is located on the right side of the cylinder block. The water pump is belt driven from the crankshaft pulley. Coolant can enter the water pump in three places:


  • Inlet at the bottom of the water pump 
  • Bypass hose (5) into the top of the water pump 
  • Shunt line (4) into the top of the water pump 

Coolant from the bottom of the radiator is pulled into the bottom inlet of the pump by impeller rotation. The coolant exits the back of the pump directly into the oil cooler cavity of the block.

All of the coolant passes through the core of the oil cooler and the coolant enters the internal water manifold of the cylinder block. The manifold disperses the coolant to water jackets around the cylinder walls.

Illustration 2 g01448779
Water Lines Group

(1) Cylinder head

(2) Water temperature regulator housing

(5) Bypass hose

(9) Water pump

(10) Outlet to radiator

(11) Water temperature regulator

(12) Air vent valve in thermostat

From the cylinder block, the coolant flows into passages in the cylinder head. The passages send the flow around the unit injector sleeves and the inlet and the exhaust passages. The coolant now enters water temperature regulator housing (2) at the front right side of the cylinder head.

Water temperature regulator (11) controls the direction of flow. When the coolant temperature is below the normal operating temperature, the water temperature regulator is closed. The coolant is directed through bypass hose (5) and into the top inlet of the water pump. When the coolant temperature reaches the normal operating temperature, water temperature regulator (11) opens. When the water temperature regulator is open, the bypass is closed. Most of the coolant goes through outlet (10) to the radiator for cooling. The remainder flows through bypass hose (5) and into the water pump.

Note: Some coolant systems may contain two water temperature regulators.

The shunt line (4) extends from the top of the water pump to an expansion tank. The shunt line must be routed properly in order to avoid trapping any air. By providing a constant head pressure to the water pump, the shunt line can provide a constant flow of coolant to the water pump. This prevents cavitation by the water pump.

Note: Water temperature regulator (11) is an important part of the cooling system. The water temperature regulator divides coolant flow between the radiator and the bypass in order to maintain the normal operating temperature. If the water temperature regulator is not installed in the system, there is no mechanical control, and most of the coolant will travel the path of least resistance through the bypass. This will cause the engine to overheat in hot weather and the engine will not reach normal operating temperature in cold weather.

Note: Air vent valve (12) will allow the air to escape past the water temperature regulator from the cooling system while the radiator is being filled. During normal operation, the air vent valve will be closed in order to prevent coolant flow past the water temperature regulator.

Coolant For Air Compressor (If Equipped)
If the engine is equipped with an air compressor the coolant for the air compressor is supplied from the water temperature regulator housing through the coolant supply line. The coolant is circulated through the air compressor and the coolant is returned to the cooling system through the coolant return line into the cylinder head.

Coolant Conditioner (If Equipped)
Some conditions of operation can cause pitting. This pitting is caused by corrosion or by cavitation erosion. A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical that provides a reduction in pitting. The addition of a corrosion inhibitor can keep this type of damage to a minimum.

The coolant conditioner element is a spin-on element that is similar to the fuel filter and to the oil filter elements. The coolant conditioner element attaches to the coolant conditioner base that is mounted on the front of the engine. Coolant flows from the water pump to the coolant conditioner base and back to the cylinder block. Coolant constantly flows through the coolant conditioner element when the valves are in the OPEN position.

The element has a specific amount of inhibitor for acceptable cooling system protection. As the coolant flows through the element, the corrosion inhibitor goes into the solution. The corrosion inhibitor is a dry solution, so the inhibitor dissolves. The corrosion inhibitor then mixes to the correct concentration. Two basic types of elements are used for the cooling system. The two elements are the precharge elements and the maintenance elements. Each type of element has a specific use. The elements must be used correctly in order to get the necessary concentration for cooling system protection. The elements also contain a filter. The coolant conditioner elements should remain in the system after the conditioner material has dissolved.

The precharge element contains more than the normal amount of inhibitor. The precharge element is used when a system is first filled with new coolant. This element must add enough inhibitor in order to bring the complete cooling system up to the correct concentration.

The maintenance elements have a normal amount of inhibitor. The maintenance elements are installed at the first change interval. A sufficient amount of inhibitor is provided by the maintenance elements in order to maintain the corrosion protection at an acceptable level. After the first change interval, only maintenance elements are installed. In order to provide the cooling system with protection, maintenance elements are installed at specific intervals.

Posted in C7

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *