C15 and C18 – ARD Failed to Ignite

System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot the following code:

Note: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Cat ET Service Features” for information about service features.

Table 1
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
J1939 Code CDL Code Code Description Comments
3473-31 E1025 (2) Aftertreatment #1 Failed to Ignite The Aftertreatment Regeneration Device (ARD) failed to ignite once during an ARD Ignition Test. Usually, the “failed to ignite” code is accompanied by another logged code that indicates the condition that caused the failure to ignite.
Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

Components for the Ignition System

The ignition coil is located on the Clean Emissions Module (CEM) mounting plate. Refer to Illustration 1.


Illustration 1 g02220355
CEM (typical)

(1) ARD ignition coil

(2) Relay for the ARD nozzle heater

(3) Cable for CEM electrical connector to ECM

(4) ARD combustion head

System Operation

The ARD ignition system has two circuits. The primary circuit is between the ECM and the ARD ignition coil. The secondary circuit is between the ARD ignition coil and the ARD spark plug. The current flow through the primary circuit indicates the condition of the primary circuit and of the secondary circuit. The ECM monitors the current flow through the primary circuit. In this way, the ECM is able to detect problems with the primary circuit and the secondary circuit.

Table 2
Associated Diagnostic Trouble Codes
J1939 Code CDL Code
3837-17 E1070(1)
3487-7 2489-7
3480-15 or 3480-16 E1050(1) or (2)
4077-15 or 4077-16 E1051 (1) or (2)
3480-17 or 3480-18 E1052(1) or (2)
4077-17 or 4077-18 E1053(1) or (2)
3609-15 E1156(1)
3487-13 2489-13
No associated codes A problem with the ignition circuit is the most likely cause of a logged E1025 (2) or 3473-31 code with no additional codes.
Table 3
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
1. Check for Associated CodesA. Establish communication between Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) and the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

B. Download the “Warranty Report” from the engine ECM before performing any troubleshooting or clearing diagnostic trouble codes.

C. If any of the associated codes in Table 2 are logged, troubleshoot the codes before continuing with this procedure.

Associated codes Result: An associated code is active or logged.Troubleshoot the associated codes before continuing with this procedure.

Result: An associated code is not active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Inspect the ComponentsCarefully following this procedure is a good way to identify wiring problems.
A. Visually inspect the components for the ARD ignition system. Look for the following problems:1. Loose connections or damaged connectors
2. Moisture on the connectors or the wiring
3. Damage that is caused by excessive heat
4. Damage that is caused by chafing
5. Improper routing of wiring
6. Damaged insulationB. Verify that each end of the ground wire is securely connected to both ground points.C. Push the boot on each end of the ignition wire. This tests whether the clip inside the boot is connected to the spark plug and to the ignition coil. There should not be a “click” when you push the boot onto either part. If you felt a “click”, the clip inside the boot was not connected.D. Pull on the end of each harness wire at the 3-pin connector for the ignition coil. This test verifies that the wire is crimped to the terminal and that the terminal is inserted into the connector.
Damaged wiring or connectors Result: There is a problem with the wiring. A wire end is not connected or a wire is damaged.Repair the wiring. Replace parts, if necessary.

Verify that the problem is resolved. If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Troubleshooting, “ARD Ignition – Test”.

Result: The wiring is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check the Current Flow to the Heating Element in the ARD Combustion HeadStart the engine. Check the current flow to the heater. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “ARD Nozzle Heater (Current)- Test” for the correct procedure. 7.0 A and 14 A for a 12 V system
or
3.5 A and 7 A for a 24 V system
Result: The current flow is between 7.0 A and 14 A for a 12 V system. Or, the current flow is between 3.5 A and 7 A for a 24 V system.
The current flow is OK.Proceed to Test Step 4.Result: The current flow is not between 7.0 A and 14 A for a 12 V system. Or, the current flow is not between 3.5 A and 7 A for a 24 V system.There may be a problem with the ARD nozzle. Refer to Troubleshooting, “ARD Nozzle Heater – Test”.
4. Perform the “ARD Air System Service Test”A. Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Use Cat ET to perform an “ARD Air System Service Test” . Refer to Troubleshooting, “ARD Combustion Air – Test”. Test passed Result The “ARD Air System Service Test” failed.There is a problem with the ARD combustion air. Refer to Troubleshooting, “ARD Combustion Air – Test”.

Result The “ARD Air System Service Test” passed.

Proceed to Test Step 5.


Illustration 2 g02292553
368-6232 Spark Tester

Table 4
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
5. Check for Spark Voltage at the Spark PlugA. Disconnect the ignition wire from the spark plug.

B. Connect the 368-6232 Spark Tester between ignition wire and the spark plug.

Use the Aftertreatment #1 Ignition Transformer Primary override on Cat ET to turn ON the ARD ignition system. Check for spark in the spark indicator.

Spark Result: There are sparks inside the spark indicator.Turn off the ARD ignition system by disabling the override. Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: There are no sparks inside the spark indicator.

Turn off the ARD ignition system by disabling the override. Proceed to Troubleshooting, “ARD Ignition – Test”.


Illustration 3 g02177709
(5) ARD spark plug

Table 5
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
6. Clean the Components in the ARD Combustion HeadA. Remove the spark plug (5) from the ARD combustion head.

B. Clean the ground probe inside the ARD combustion head by running a 305-2389 Plug Bore Brush through the hole in the ARD combustion head. Run the brush through the hole several times.

C. Inspect the spark plug. Look for the following problems:

1. Carbon Deposits – Use a nonmetallic cleaning pad to clean the spark plug.
2. Bent Probe – If the probe appears to be bent, replace the spark plug. Otherwise, install the original spark plug. Refer to the Specifications manual for the correct torque value.
3. Cracked Porcelain – If the porcelain appears to be cracked, replace the spark plug. Otherwise, install the original spark plug. Refer to the Specifications manual for the correct torque value.
The spark plug may be damaged if the spark plug is dropped. Do not install a spark plug that has been dropped.

Spark plug damaged Result: The components are clean. The spark plug is not damaged.Install the spark plug.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: If the spark plug probe is bent, cracked, or has been dropped, replace the spark plug.


Illustration 4 g02574776
(6) Flame detection temperature sensor

Table 6
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
7. Clean the Flame Detection Temperature SensorA. Remove the flame detection temperature sensor (6).

B. Clean the flame detection temperature sensor. Use a nonmetallic cleaning pad to clean the sensor.

Clean sensor Result: The components are clean. The flame detection temperature sensor is not damaged. Install the flame detection sensor.Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The flame detection temperature is damaged. Replace flame detection temperature sensor.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Check the ARD for Proper OperationA. Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Use Cat ET to perform an “ARD Ignition Test” in order to verify that the problem is resolved.

The ARD Ignition Test cannot be performed if the DPF soot loading is above 80%. When the DPF soot loading is above 80%, the Manual DPF Regeneration must be performed using Cat ET.

Successful test Result: The test is successful.Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The test is not successful.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The test is not successful. There are additional codes.

Troubleshoot the additional codes. Refer to Troubleshooting for the correct procedure.
Verify that the problem is resolved.


Illustration 5 g02574802
Components of the ARD combustion head

(7) ARD pilot filter connector

(8) ARD main filter connector (If equipped)

Table 7
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
9. Replace the Pilot Filter Connector at the ARD Combustion HeadA. Flush the ARD fuel system and replace the pilot filter connector at the ARD combustion head. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System – Flush” for additional information.

B. Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Perform the “ARD Ignition Test” using Cat ET and verify that there are no fuel leaks. Refer to System Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “ARD Fuel System – Test”.

The ARD Ignition Test cannot be performed if the DPF soot loading is above 80%. When the DPF soot loading is above 80%, the Manual DPF Regeneration must be performed using Cat ET.

Successful test Result: The test is successful.Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The test is not successful.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: The test is not successful. There are additional codes.

Troubleshoot the additional codes. Refer to Troubleshooting for the correct procedure.
Verify that the problem is resolved.


Illustration 6 g02606408
(9) Fouled slot


Illustration 7 g02606409
(10) Acceptable soot accumulation

 

Table 8
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
10. Inspect ARD Swirl Plate

A. Remove ARD head. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Combustion Head Group (ARD) – Remove and Install – Clean Emissions Module” for the proper procedure to remove the ARD combustion head.

Soot accumulation is normal. Slot fouling is defined as more than 1/2 the inner row slots being completely blocked. Partially blocked inner row slots are normal and do not affect regeneration performance. Refer to Illustrations 6 and 7 to verify if the swirl plate is fouled.

B. Inspect the swirl plate for fouled slots. Refer to Illustrations 6 and 7 to verify if the swirl plate is fouled.

Swirl plate fouled Result: The swirl plate is fouled.

Clean the swirl plate. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, “Swirl Plate (ARD Combustion) – Inspect/Clean “.

Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Perform the “ARD Ignition Test” in Cat ET and verify that there are no fuel leaks.

The ARD Ignition Test cannot be performed if the DPF soot loading is above 80%. When the DPF soot loading is above 80%, the Manual DPF Regeneration must be performed using Cat ET.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: The swirl plate is not fouled.

Replace the ARD combustion head. Refer to Special Instruction, REHS4824, “Replacement of the ARD Combustion Head on Caterpillar Products with Clean Emissions Modules”.

Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Perform the “ARD Ignition Test” in Cat ET and verify that there are no fuel leaks.

The ARD Ignition Test cannot be performed if the DPF soot loading is above 80%. When the DPF soot loading is above 80%, the Manual DPF Regeneration must be performed using Cat ET.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

11. Perform a Cat ET “Manual DPF Regeneration”

This test must be performed through Cat ET. The Cat ET service tool enhances the diagnostics during the service test.

A. Clear all diagnostic codes.

B. Click the “Disconnect” icon on Cat ET in order to disconnect Cat ET from the engine.

C. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Wait for 5 seconds.

D. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

E. Click the “Connect” icon on Cat ET in order to connect Cat ET to the engine.

F. Start the engine. Allow the engine to idle for 3 minutes.

Do not use the operators switch for a stationary regeneration. The service tests provide enhanced diagnostics that are necessary for proper troubleshooting and repair.

G. Start a “Manual DPF Regeneration” in Cat ET.

The ECM tests the nozzles for plugging after the “Manual DPF Regeneration” is complete. Approximately 10 minutes are required in order for the test to provide a result. A code will become active if the nozzles are plugged.

Successful test Result: The “Manual DPF Regeneration” completed successfully. There are no additional codes.

Return the unit to service.

Result: The “Manual DPF Regeneration” did not complete successfully. There are additional codes.

Troubleshoot the additional codes. Refer to Troubleshooting for the correct procedure.
Verify that the problem is resolved.

Test Step 1.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the steps are listed.

Results:

  • The procedure corrected the issue. – STOP
  • The procedure did not correct the issue. –Repair: Contact your Cat dealer Technical Communicator (TC). For further assistance, your TC can confer with the Dealer Solutions Network (DSN).

    STOP

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