C13, C15, and C18 Engines Troubleshooting – Cooling Fan Control – Test

System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot the electrical system if a problem is suspected with the engine fan control solenoid. Use this procedure if one of the diagnostic codes in Table 1 is active.

Table 1
Diagnostic Codes Table
CDL Code J1939 Code Code Description
(code descriptions may vary)
Comments
291-5 4212-5 Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid : Current Below Normal The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an open circuit in the circuit for the engine fan control solenoid.
The ECM sends minimum current to the fan control solenoid. The code is logged.
291-6 4212-6 Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid : Current Above Normal The ECM detects a short circuit to ground in the circuit for the engine fan control solenoid.
The ECM sends minimum current to the fan control solenoid. The code is logged.
1076-5 Engine Cooling Fan Bypass Solenoid : Current Below Normal The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an open circuit in the circuit for the engine cooling fan bypass solenoid.
The ECM sends minimum current to the fan control solenoid. The code is logged.
1076-6 Engine Cooling Fan Bypass Solenoid : Current Above Normal The ECM detects a short circuit to ground in the circuit for the engine cooling fan bypass solenoid.
The ECM sends minimum current to the fan bypass solenoid. The code is logged.

The ECM monitors engine coolant temperature, intake manifold air temperature, and hydraulic oil temperature. The ECM monitors the sensors in order to determine the correct speed for the engine cooling fan.

The ECM controls the speed of the fan by controlling the current to the engine fan control solenoid. The engine fan control solenoid controls the amount of pressure to the fan pump by allowing oil to bypass the fan pump. The fan pump drives the fan. When the ECM outputs minimum current to the engine fan control solenoid, less oil is bypassed. The fan pump will now drive the fan at a higher rpm. When the ECM outputs maximum current to the engine fan control solenoid, more oil is bypassed. The fan pump will now drive the fan at a lower rpm.

If the ECM detects a system fault, the ECM provides minimum current to the solenoid. Minimum current ensures a maximum fan speed while the fault condition exists.

 

An override is available with Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET). An override allows the fan to be manually changed from the minimum to the maximum rpm.


Illustration 1 g02061556
Schematic for the engine fan control solenoid

Table 2
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
1. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes

A. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

B. Verify that the solenoid connector is free of debris and connected securely.

C. Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector.

D. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.

E. Select diagnostic tests from Cat ET.

F.Select the “Override Parameters” screen on Cat ET.

G. Activate the fan override.

H. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on Cat ET. Check and record any active diagnostic codes.

Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the diagnostic code to become active.

I. Disable the fan override.

Active Diagnostic codes Result: No diagnostic codes are active.

The problem may have been related to a faulty connection in the harness. Carefully inspect the connectors and wiring. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors – Inspect”.

Result: A short circuit diagnostic code (-6) is active at this time.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: An open circuit diagnostic code (-5) is active at this time.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

2. Disconnect the Connector for the Engine Fan Control Solenoid in Order to Create an Open Circuit

A. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

B. Disconnect the connector for the engine fan control solenoid.

C. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.

D. Activate the fan override.

E. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on Cat ET. Check and record any active diagnostic codes.

Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the diagnostic code to become active.

F. Disable the fan override.

Short circuit Result: A short circuit diagnostic code (-6) remains active. There is a short circuit between the harness connector for the engine fan control solenoid and the ECM.

Repair the connectors or wiring and/or replace the connectors or wiring. Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: A short circuit diagnostic code (-6) was active before disconnecting the connector. An open circuit diagnostic code (-5) became active after disconnecting the connector.

Replace the engine fan control solenoid. Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Verify that the problem is resolved.

3. Create a Short at the Connector for the Engine Fan Control Solenoid

A. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

B. Fabricate a jumper wire that is long enough to create a short between the terminals of the connector for the engine fan control solenoid. Crimp connector pins to each end of the jumper wire.

C. Install the jumper wire between terminal 1 (engine fan control solenoid) and terminal 2 (solenoid return) on the harness side of the connector.

D. Restore the electrical power to the ECM.

E. Activate the fan override.

F. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on Cat ET. Check and record any active diagnostic codes.

Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the diagnostic code to become active.

Disable the fan override. Remove the jumper wire.

Open circuit Result: The open circuit diagnostic code (-5) remains active with the jumper in place.

Repair the connectors or wiring and/or replace the connectors or wiring. Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Result: A short circuit diagnostic code (-6) is active when the jumper wire is installed. An open circuit diagnostic code (5) is active when the jumper wire is removed.

Replace the engine fan control solenoid. Reset all active codes and clear all logged codes. Verify that the problem is resolved.

Test Step 1.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the steps are listed.

Results:

 

  • The procedure corrected the issue. – STOP 
  • The procedure did not correct the issue. –Repair: Contact your Cat dealer Technical Communicator (TC). For further assistance, your TC can confer with the Dealer Solutions Network (DSN).

    STOP

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