Use a DC Voltmeter to find starting system components which do not function.
Move the start control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.
If the solenoid for the starter motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery did not get to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is broken circuit from the battery. More testing is necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter.
The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance.
Make a test with one voltmeter lead fastened to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid, and the other lead to the ground. Look at the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the start switch or the wires for the start switch.
Fasten one voltmeter lead to the start switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading indicates a broken circuit from the battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and wiring. If there is a voltmeter reading, the problem is in the start switch or in the wires for the start switch.
A starter motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starter motor can also be caused by short circuit, loose connections and/or dirt in the motor.
To test for correct output of starter motors and starter solenoid, make reference to the Specifications section of the complete service manual.