8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate,8S5132 Puller Plate,8S8375 Sleeve,8S5133 Expansion Plug,8S6470 Pressure Screw,8B7561 Step Plate.
1. Remove the fuel injection pump housing and position the engine crankshaft so No.1 piston is on the compression stroke at top center (TC).
8S5417 TIMING FIXTURE PLATE INSTALLED
2. Install the 8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate on the rear face of the accessory drive housing, dowels aligned and bolts installed as illustrated.
NOTE: If the timing fixture plate can be installed, timing is correct. If it cannot be installed, proceed as follows:
3. Remove the small cover from the front of the timing gear housing. Remove the gear retaining nut and washer.
Tools Needed: 8S5132 Puller Plate, 8S8375 Sleeve, 8S5133 Expansion Plug, 8S6470 Pressure Screw, 8B7561 Step Plate, two 3/8″ NF Bolts 31/2″ (88.9 mm) long, two 3/8″ flat washers.
4. Separate the gear from the accessory drive shaft.
5. Rotate the accessory drive shaft in the direction necessary to install the 8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate.
ROTATING THE ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT
6. Install the conical washer, with the large diameter against the timing gear, and install the gear retaining nut. Tighten the gear retaining nut to 100 ± 10 lb. ft. (13.8 ± 1.4 mkg) and remove the timing plate. The fuel injection pump camshaft will be in time with the engine crankshaft when the injection pump housing is installed on the engine.
1F8747 Timing Plate, 8S7167 Gauge,8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor6F6922 Depth Micrometer, 4 to 5 in. (101.6 to 127.0 mm) rod.
NOTE: The 1P5600 Timing Fixture Group can also be used. Form GMG00838 provides detailed instructions.
The off engine method will result in correct fuel injection timing only if the pump housing is installed on a new engine or an engine with new timing gears, accessory drive shaft and fuel pump camshaft. The off engine setting adjusts for wear in the fuel injection pump housing only. The accessory drive shaft timing adjusts for wear in the timing gears, accessory drive shaft and fuel pump camshaft coupling.
1. Install the pointer assembly on the fuel injection pump housing.
2. Place 1F8747 Timing Plate on the drive end of the camshaft. Secure the plate to the camshaft.
3. Refer to the chart and select the timing plate degree setting for the lifter being checked or set. Set the timing plate by rotating it counterclockwise until the proper degree setting aligns with the pointer assembly. Lock in position with the lockscrew.
4. The fuel injection pump timing dimension (off engine), using the 8S7167 Gauge is 4.2675 ± .0020 in. (108.395 ± 0.051 mm).
NOTE: Fuel injection pump removal is made with an 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor.
5. The spacer must be changed to change the timing dimension.
6. If all timing dimensions are to be checked or reset, continue the same procedure in the firing order of the engine. Recheck each timing dimension after the adjustment has been made.
NOTE: The accessory drive shaft must be positioned correctly in relation to the engine crankshaft, before the fuel injection pump housing is installed.
The timing dimension should be checked and reset, if necessary, to account for slipped accessory drive shaft coupling or worn timing gears. The timing dimension can be checked in either of the following manners.
Checking with 1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group and 3S2954 Timing Indicator Group
3S2954 Timing Indicator Group.9M9268 Dial Indicator.1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group.
Before performing flow check, locate (TC) compression position for No.1 piston.
Refer to Special Instruction (FM035709) for complete and detailed instructions for the fuel flow method of engine timing.
MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL
1. 3S3263 Adapter. 2. 9M9268 Dial Indicator. 3. 3S3264 Rod. 4. Precombustion chamber. 5. Inlet port. 6. Piston. 7. Crankshaft.
Travel of piston (6), from point of closing inlet port (5) to top center, can be found by using the 3S2954 Timing Indicator Group. Convert the travel of piston (6) into degrees to determine if engine timing is correct.
The 1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group is used to pressurize the fuel system. Maintain 10 to 15 psi (0.7 to 1.1 kg/cm2) fuel with the 1P539 Tank Assembly. This can be done with hand pump provided with the tank assembly or connecting shop air to the tank assembly.
Consult the chart to find the angle corresponding to the indicator reading. At the indicator reading and timing angle specified, fuel flow from the injection pump should be reduced to 6 to 12 drops per minute [point of closing inlet port (5)].
Checking with 8S4620 or 8S4618 Gauge
8S4618 Fuel Pump Lifter Gauge or8S4620 Fuel Pump Lifter Gauge,8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate, 8S4613 Wrench, 8S2244 Extractor
FUEL PUMP LIFTER GAUGE INSTALLED
1. 8S4620 Gauge for four cylinder engines and 8S4618 Gauge for six cylinder engines.
1. Locate (TC) compression position for No. 1 piston.
2. Remove No.1 fuel injection pump with 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Insert fuel pump lifter gauge (1) into the fuel pump bore (4).
3. With gauge seated in fuel pump housing, the higher step of the plunger (2) must be slightly above the top surface of the gauge body (3). The lower step of the plunger must be just below the top surface of the gauge body.
FUEL PUMP LIFTER GAUGE INSTALLED
1. Fuel pump lifter gauge. 2. Plunger. 3. Body. 4. Fuel pump bore.
NOTE: If plunger (2) of gauge (1) is in the position as stated in Step 3, rotate the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation and observe the movement of plunger (2). Plunger (2) must rise. If plunger (2) does not rise, refer to ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT TIMING.
4. If the plunger in the gauge is not in the position stated in Step 3, check the accessory drive shaft timing. See the topic ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT TIMING.
5. If the accessory drive shaft timing is correct and the lifter gauge plunger was not in the position stated in Step 3, the pump timing dimension setting must be corrected. See FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION SETTING: OFF ENGINE.
Checking with 8S7167 Gauge
8S7167 Gauge,6F6922 Depth Micrometer, 4 to 5 in. (101.6 to 127.0 mm) rod,8S4613 Wrench, 8S2244 Extractor.
1. Locate (TC) compression position for No.1 piston.
2. Remove No.1 fuel injection pump with 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Insert gauge (2) into the housing fuel pump bore.
3. The correct timing dimension setting using depth micrometer (1) is:
Four cylinder: 4.2216 ± .0020 in. (107.229 ± 0.051 mm).
Six cylinder: 4.2179 ± .0020 in. (107.135 ± 0.051 mm).
CHECKING TIMING DIMENSION SETTING (Typical Example)
1. 6F6922 Depth Micrometer, 4 to 5 in. (101.6 to 127.0 mm) rod. 2. 8S7167 Gauge.
4. If the timing dimension setting measurement is not correct, check the accessory drive shaft timing. See ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT TIMING.
5. If the accessory drive shaft timing is correct and the timing dimension setting measurement was incorrect, the timing setting must be corrected. See FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION SETTING: OFF ENGINE.
No.1 piston on the compression stroke at top center (TC) is the reference point for all timing procedures.
LOCATING TOP CENTER
1. Timing pointer (aligned with mark on flywheel).
Remove the valve and rocker arm cover (the two valves at the front of the engine are the intake and exhaust valves for No.1 cylinder). Remove the plate on the left of the flywheel housing.
Rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise (as viewed from the flywheel end) at least 60°, until both the intake and exhaust valves of No.1 cylinder are closed.
Align the timing mark “TC 1” with the pointer (1). The No.1 piston is now positioned at top center (TC) on compression.
Fuel Injection Valve
When installing a fuel injection valve, always check the seats of both the nozzle and the precombustion chamber. The nozzle assembly should be only finger-tight on the body. It is important to maintain the nozzle retaining nut torque to 105 ± 5 lb. ft. (14.5 ± 0.7 mkg). EXCESSIVE TORQUE will damage the nozzle. LESS TORQUE will allow the nozzle to leak and may cause the nozzle case to bulge or split.
Fuel Injection Pump
Use an 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor to remove and install fuel injection pumps.
When removing fuel injection pumps, spacers and lifters the components should be kept together and marked so they can be installed in their respective locations.
While disassembling fuel injection pumps, exercise considerable care to prevent damage to the plunger surfaces. The barrel and the plunger are matched and are not interchangeable. Use extreme care when inserting the plunger into the bore of the barrel.
Fuel Injection Pump Installation
The installation of fuel injection pumps requires that the lifter be at a low point and the fuel rack be centered or at “zero” position. To center or “zero” the rack, install the 7S7113 Rack Setting Gauge and set it at .000 in., retract the speed limiter, and move the rack in “fuel on” direction until it contacts the gauge. To install the pump, sight down the pump and align notches in bonnet and barrel with slot in the pump gear segment. Slot is 180° from pump gear segment center tooth.
RACK SETTING GAUGE INSTALLED
1. 7S7113 Rack Setting Gauge. A. 9S240 Rack Positioning Tool Group can also be used.
Position the notches in bonnet and barrel to align with dowels in the housing. Install the pump. Keep a downward force (by hand) on the pump and install the bushing finger tight, until flush with top of housing. If the bushing cannot be assembled this far finger tight, remove the bushing and pump. The threads, on the bushing or in the housing, can be the restriction. Align the pump components and reinstall it. If the bushing installs correctly, tighten it to a torque of 150 ± 10 lb. ft. (20.7 ± 1.4 mkg). Overtightening the bushing can damage the housing or if the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will leak.
Total rack travel, approximately .800 in. (20.32 mm), will be reduced if the pump is installed one or more teeth off in either the “fuel on” or “fuel off” side of its gear segment. The only way to check for correct installation of pumps with engine stopped is to measure full rack travel with the entire governor removed, including piston and valve mechanism.
Fuel Injection Lines
Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.
Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.
TIGHTENING THE NUT OF A FUEL INJECTION LINE
1. 5P144 Fuel Line Socket.
The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and the 5P144 Fuel Line Socket (1) to tighten the fuel line nuts to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (4.1 ± 0.7 mkg).
Fuel Bypass Valve
The fuel bypass valve should control fuel pressure to the fuel injection pump at full speed to a pressure of 25 to 32 psi (1.8 to 2.2 kg/cm2).
Examine fuel injection valves for:
1. Excessive carbon on tip of nozzle or in orifice.
2. Erosion of the orifice.
3. Screen plugged with dirt.
The condition of a capsule-type nozzle assembly can be tested on the Caterpillar Diesel Fuel Injection Test Bench, and the rate of leakage of the nozzle assembly can be determined.
Checking Fuel Injection Pump Lifter Washer and Pump Plunger
The timing dimension should be checked and adjusted, if necessary, by setting the fuel injection pump timing dimension with the fuel injection pump off the engine. This will assure that the point of the fuel injection is correct. If the timing dimension is too small, injection will begin early, and if too great, injection will be late.
When pump plunger wear becomes excessive, the lifter washer may also be worn so it will not make full contact with the end of a new plunger. To avoid rapid wear on the end of the new plunger, replace the lifters having washers showing visible wear.
WEAR BETWEEN LIFTER WASHER AND PLUNGER
Fig. A illustrates the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger and a new lifter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger and lifter washer have worn considerably. Fig. C shows how the flat end of a new plunger makes poor contact with a worn lifter washer, resulting in rapid wear to both parts.
A pump can maintain a satisfactory discharge rate and yet be unserviceable because of delayed timing resulting from wear on the lower end of the plunger. When testing a pump which has been in use for a long time, check the plunger length with a micrometer. Discard the pump if the plunger measures less than the minimum length (worn) dimension.
Inspect the upper diameter of the plunger for wear. Performance of pumps worn in this manner can be checked as described in the Instructions for Fuel Injection Test Bench.
A variety of electrical systems can be used with these engines. Some systems are available with one 32 volt, 24 volt or 12 volt starting motor. Where 30 volt (15 cell battery) system is used, the 32 volt diagram applies. Other systems without electric starting motors are provided for use with air starting and hydraulic starting.
Glow plugs provide for low temperature starting. Glow plugs are not required where ideal starting conditions exist. These diagrams show only the HEAT-START switch with glow plugs. Systems without glow plugs use a push button switch with two post connections to energize the starter solenoid.
A fuel pressure switch in all systems prevents alternator field excitation. Thus damage to the alternator from the battery is prevented when the engine is not operating.
Automatic START-STOP wiring diagrams are shown for the complete system in the ATTACHMENT section of this manual.
Negative Ground Systems
These systems are most often used in applications where no special precautions are necessary to prevent local radio interference and/or electrolysis of grounded components.
NEGATIVE GROUND 24V: 60 AMP. AND 32V: 60 AMP. SYSTEM WITH GLOW PLUGS (DELCO REMY)
NEGATIVE GROUND 24V: 35 AMP. OR 12V: 35 AMP. SYSTEM WITH GLOW PLUGS (MOTOROLA)
NEGATIVE GROUND 24V: 45 AMP. OR 12V: 60 AMP. SYSTEM WITH GLOW PLUGS (DELCO REMY)
NEGATIVE GROUND 24V: 60 AMP. OR 32V: 60 AMP. SYSTEM WITH GLOW PLUGS FOR USE WITH AIR OR HYDRAULIC STARTING (DELCO REMY)
The electrical system is a combination of three separate electric circuits: the charging circuit, the starting circuit and the lighting or load circuit. Each circuit is dependent on some of the same components. The battery (batteries), ammeter, cables and wires from the battery are common in each of the three circuits.
The charging circuit is in operation when the diesel engine is operating. The electricity producing (charging) unit is a generator or alternator. A regulator in the circuit senses the state of charge in the battery and regulates the charging unit output to keep the battery fully charged.
The starting circuit operates only when the start switch is actuated.
The direct electric diesel engine starting circuit may include a glow plug for each diesel engine cylinder. The glow plugs are small heating elements in the precombustion chambers which promote fuel ignition when the engine is started in low temperatures.
The low amperage load and charging circuits are both connected on the same side of the ammeter while the starting circuit connects to the other side of the ammeter.
This alternator is a three phase self-rectifying charging unit.
The alternator has four main components: end frame assembly (brush end), rotor assembly, stator and shell assembly, and end frame assembly (drive end).
A separate regulator senses the charge condition of the battery as well as electrical system power demand and controls the alternator output accordingly by limiting the field current.
1. Hollow head screw. 2. Connector.
ALTERNATOR CHARGING CIRCUIT-SCHEMATIC (Negative Ground System Illustrated)
The alternator is belt driven from the crankshaft pulley. It is a three-phase self-rectifying charging unit with three main functional parts: A rotating magnetic field (rotor) which produces flux; a stationary armature (stator) in which alternating current is induced; and stationary rectifying diodes that change alternating current to direct current.
The alternator field current is passed through brushes. The field current is in the order of 2 to 3 amperes. The rectifying diodes will pass current from the alternator to the battery or load, but will not pass current from the battery to the alternator.
The separate transistorized voltage regulator is an electronic switching device. It senses the voltage in the system at the oil pressure switch and supplies the necessary field current to maintain the required system voltage. The voltage regulator has two basic “circuits.” The “load circuit” conducts positive potential from the regulator input lead, through a diode and transistor, to the regulator output lead, providing the circuit to the rotor (field) winding. The “control circuit” consists of a voltage sensitive zener diode, drive transistor and a voltage divider network. The “control circuit” directs the transistor in the “load circuit” to turn off and on at a rate that will provide the required charging voltage.
A solenoid is a magnetic switch that utilizes low current to close a high current circuit. The solenoid has an electromagnet with a movable core. There are contacts on the end of the core. The contacts are held open by a spring that pushes the core away from the magnetic center of the coil. Low current will energize the coil and form a magnetic field. The magnetic field draws the core to the center of the coil and the contacts close.
SCHEMATIC OF A SOLENOID
1. Coil. 2. Switch terminal. 3. Battery terminal. 4. Contacts. 5. Spring. 6. Core. 7. Component terminal.
The starting motor is a device used to rotate the flywheel of an engine fast enough to start the engine.
STARTING MOTOR CROSS SECTION
1. Field. 2. Solenoid. 3. Clutch. 4. Pinion. 5. Commutator. 6. Brush assembly. 7. Armature.
The starting motor used with direct electric start incorporates a solenoid. The action of the solenoid engages the pinion with the ring gear on the engine flywheel, when the solenoid is energized. The pinion always engages before the electric contacts in the solenoid closes the circuit between the battery and the starting motor. An overrunning clutch protects the starting motor from being overspeeded. Releasing the start-switch disengages the pinion from the ring gear on the flywheel.
RADIATOR COOLING SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1. Radiator. 2. Coolant external bypass line (D330C and D333C); elbow with internal bypass for coolant (3304 and 3306). 3. Temperature regulator housing or elbow. 4. Cylinder head. 5. Engine oil cooler. 6. Radiator outlet line. 7. Water pump. 8. Cylinder block.
HEAT EXCHANGER COOLING SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1. Heat exchanger. 2. Coolant external bypass line (D330C and D333C); elbow with internal bypass for coolant (3304 and 3306). 3. Temperature regulator housing or elbow. 4. Fresh water cooled exhaust manifold shield. 5. Cylinder head. 6. Heat exchanger outlet pipe. 7. Cylinder block. 8. Oil cooler bonnet (flow divided to exhaust manifold shield, marine gear oil cooler, if so equipped, and cylinder block). 9. Fresh water pump. 10. Marine gear oil cooler (D330C and D333C). 11. Engine oil cooler. 12. Raw water pump to heat exchanger core line. 13. Raw water discharge overboard line. 14. Raw water pump. 15. Raw water supply line.
KEEL COOLING SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1. Expansion tank. 2. Coolant external bypass line (D330C and D333C); elbow with internal bypass for coolant (3304 and 3306). 3. Temperature regulator housing or elbow. 4. Water cooled exhaust manifold shield. 5. Cylinder head. 6. Expansion tank outlet line. 7. Cylinder block. 8. Oil cooler bonnet (flow divided to exhaust manifold shield, marine gear oil cooler, if so equipped, and cylinder block). 9. Water pump. 10. Marine gear oil cooler (D330C and D333C). 11. Engine oil cooler. 12. Keel cooling coil.
LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (D333C Illustrated)
The arrows show the approximate direction of oil flow in the engine. 1. Oil filter base (includes bypass valves). 2. Engine oil cooler. 3. Turbocharger oil reservoir in center section. 4. Oil passage through rocker arm shaft. 5. Oil cooler bypass valve. 6. Timing gears (in front compartment). 7. Oil pump (in front part of oil pan). 8. Oil filter case. 9. Oil pan (sump). 10. Oil filter bypass valve. 11. Oil manifold (in cylinder block assembly).
The lubrication system consists of a sump (oil pan), oil pump, oil cooler and oil filter. The cylinder block contains an oil manifold and oil passages to direct the oil to the various parts.
The pump draws oil from the sump and forces the oil through the oil cooler, oil filter, and into the oil manifold. Oil flows through connecting passages to the external and internal engine parts. A regulating valve in the pump body controls the maximum pressure of the oil from the pump.
When the engine is started, the lubricating oil in the oil pan is cold (cool). This cool viscous oil does not flow readily through the system. This cool oil forces bypass valves, in the oil cooler to open, and allows an unrestricted oil flow through the engine.
As the temperature of the oil increases, the viscosity and pressure of the oil decreases, and the bypass valves close. Now, only filtered oil is delivered to the engine parts.
A dirty or clogged oil filter element will not prevent lubricating oil from being delivered to the engine parts. The oil filter bypass valve will open, allowing oil to bypass the element.
The oil manifold directs lubricant to the main bearing supply passages, timing gear bearings, to a passage leading through the cylinder head to the valve rocker arm shaft, and the rocker arms and valves.
Oil spray orifices in the engine block, near the crankshaft main bearings, spray oil on the underside of the pistons. This cools the pistons and provides lubricant for the piston pins, cylinder walls and piston rings.
The connecting rod bearings receive oil through drilled passages in the crankshaft, between the main bearing journals and connecting rod journals.
Oil draining from the valve rocker arms lubricates the valves, push rods and lifters. On six cylinder engines, the camshaft cams, and the camshaft intermediate and rear bearings, are splash lubricated. On four cylinder engines, the camshaft cams are splash lubricated and the camshaft bearings are pressure lubricated.
All timing gear bearings, except the accessory drive gear bearing, are pressure lubricated. Oil is supplied to the bearings through passages in the cylinder block. The accessory drive gear bearing is lubricated by oil draining from the accessory drive shaft housing.
When the engine is warm, and running at rated speed, the oil pressure gauge should register in the “operating range.” A lower pressure reading is normal at idling speeds.
A small orifice in the gauge connection prevents rapid gauge fluctuation. Check this orifice for dirt if the gauge becomes inoperative.